In Pennsylvania's

Sunday, September 8, 2013

The International Community

As per Chapter Nine of the Compendium, The International Community,
    “The centrality of the human person and the natural inclination of persons and peoples to establish relationships among themselves are the fundamental elements for building a true international community, the ordering of which must aim at guaranteeing the effective universal common good.[Cf. Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1911.]….“Despite the widespread aspiration to build an authentic international community, the unity of the human family is not yet becoming a reality. This is due to obstacles originating in materialistic and nationalistic ideologies that contradict the values of the person integrally considered in all his various dimensions, material and spiritual, individual and community….any theory or form whatsoever of racism and racial discrimination is morally unacceptable.[Cf. Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Declaration Nostra Aetate, 5: AAS 58 (1966), 743-744; John XXIII, Encyclical Letter Pacem in Terris: AAS 55 (1963), 268, 281; Paul VI, Encyclical Letter Populorum Progressio, 63: AAS 59 (1967), 288; Paul VI, Apostolic Letter Octogesima Adveniens, 16: AAS 63 (1971), 413; Pontifical Council for Justice and Peace, The Church and Racism. Contribution of the Holy See to the World Conference against Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia and Related Intolerance, Vatican Press, Vatican City 2001.]....

    “The coexistence among nations is based on the same values that should guide relations among human beings:
    • truth,
    • justice,
    • active solidarity and
    • freedom.
    [Cf. John XXIII, Encylical Letter Pacem in Terris: AAS 55 (1963), 279-280.882]....

    “International law becomes the guarantor of the international order, [Cf. Pius XII, Encyclical Letter Summi Pontificatus, 29: AAS 31 (1939), 438-439.] that is of coexistence among political communities that seek individually to promote the common good of their citizens and strive collectively to guarantee that of all peoples,[Cf. John XXIII, Encyclical Letter Pacem in Terris: AAS 55 (1963), 292; John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 52: AAS 83 (1991), 857-858.]aware that the common good of a nation cannot be separated from the good of the entire human family [Cf. John XXIII, Encyclical Letter in Pacem in Terris: AAS 55 (1963), 284.]....

    “The Magisterium recognizes the importance of national sovereignty....Culture constitutes the guarantee for the preservation of the identity of a people and expresses and promotes its spiritual sovereignty. [Cf. John Paul II, Address to UNESCO (2 June 1980), 14: L'Osservatore Romano, English edition, 23 June 1980, p. 11.] National sovereignty is not, however, absolute. Nations can freely renounce the exercise of some of their rights in view of a common goal….special attention should be given to the fact that there is still no international agreement that adequately addresses 'the rights of nations', [John Paul II, Address to the Fiftieth General Assembly of the United Nations (5 October 1995), 6: L'Osservatore Romano, English edition, 11 October 1995, p. 8.]....
    “To bring about and consolidate an international order that effectively guarantees peaceful mutual relations among peoples, the same moral law that governs the life of men must also regulate relations among States....The universal moral law, written on the human heart, must be considered effective and indelible as the living expression of the shared conscience of humanity....
    “Juridical and theological reflection, firmly based on natural law, has formulated 'universal principles which are prior to and superior to the internal law of States', [John Paul II, Message for the 2004 World Day of Peace, 5: AAS 96 (2004), 116.] such as
    the unity of the human race,
    the equal dignity of every people,
    the rejection of war as a means for resolving disputes,
    the obligation to cooperate for attaining the common good and
    the need to be faithful to agreements undertaken (pacta sunt servanda).....
    To resolve the tensions that arise among different political communities and can compromise the stability of nations and international security, it is indispensable to make use of common rules in a commitment to negotiation and to reject definitively the idea that justice can be sought through recourse to war.[Cf. John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 23: AAS 83 (1991), 820-821.]....Not only does the Charter of the United Nations ban recourse to force, but it rejects even the threat to use force.[Cf. Charter of the United Nations (26 June 1945), art. 2.4; John Paul II, Message for the 2004 World Day of Peace, 6: AAS 96 (2004), 117.]....In order to consolidate the primacy of law, the principle of mutual confidence is of the utmost importance.[Cf. Pius XII, Christmas Radio Message (24 December 1945): AAS 38 (1946), 22; John XXIII, Encyclical Letter Pacem in Terris: AAS 55 (1963), 287-288.]....

    “Concern for an ordered and peaceful coexistence within the human family prompts the Magisterium to insist on the need to establish 'some universal public authority acknowledged as such by all and endowed with effective power to safeguard, on the behalf of all, security, regard for justice, and respect for rights'.[Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 82: AAS 58 (1966), 1105; cf. John XXIII, Encyclical Letter Pacem in Terris: AAS 55 (1963), 293; Paul VI, Encyclical Letter Populorum Progressio, 78: AAS 59 (1967), 295.]....it is essential that such an authority arise from mutual agreement and that it not be imposed, nor must it be understood as a kind of 'global super-State'.[John Paul II, Message for the 2003 World Day of Peace, 6: AAS 95 (2003), 344.]....

    “intergovernmental structures must effecttively perform their functions of control and guidance in the economic field because the attainment of the common good has become a goal that is beyond the reach of individual States....International agencies must moreover guarantee the attainment of that equality which is the basis of the right of all to participate in the process of full development, duly respecting legitimate differences.[Cf. John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Sollicitudo Rei Socialis, 33, 39: AAS 80 (1988), 557-559, 566-568.]….

    “The Magisterium positively evaluates the associations that have formed in civil society in order to shape public opinion in its awareness of the various aspects of international life, with particular attention paid to the respect of human rights....

    “The international activity of the Holy See ….aims at offering non-partisan service to the international community, since it seeks no advantage for itself but only the good of the entire human family….

    “The solution to the problem of development requires cooperation among individual political communities....

    “As the Magisterium sees it, the right to development is based on the following principles:
    • unity of origin and a shared destiny of the human family;
    • equality between every person and between every community based on human dignity;
    • the universal destination of the goods of the earth;
    • the notion of development in its entirety; and
    • the centrality of the human person and solidarity….

    “The Church's social doctrine encourages forms of cooperation that are capable of facilitating access to the international market on the part of countries suffering from poverty and underdevelopment....

    “Among the causes that greatly contribute to underdevelopment and poverty, in addition to the impossibility of acceding to the international market, [Cf. Paul VI, Encyclical Letter Populorum Progressio, 56-61: AAS 59 (1967), 285-287.] mention must be made of
    • illiteracy,
    • lack of food security,
    • the absence of structures and services,
    • inadequate measures for guaranteeing basic health care,
    • the lack of safe drinking water and sanitation,
    • corruption,
    • instability of institutions and of political life itself.
    There is a connection between poverty and, in many countries, the lack of liberty, possibilities for economic initiative and a national administration capable of setting up an adequate system of education and information....

    “international cooperation requires that, beyond the strict market mentality, there should be an awareness of the duty to solidarity, justice and universal charity.[Cf. Paul VI, Encyclical Letter Populorum Progressio, 44: AAS 59 (1967), 279.]....

    “At the beginning of the New Millennium, the poverty of billions of men and women is 'the one issue that most challenges our human and Christian consciences'.[John Paul II, Message for the 2000 World Day of Peace, 14: AAS 92 (2000), 366; cf. John Paul II, Message for the 1993 World Day of Peace, 1: AAS 85 (1993), 429-430.]....

    “The fight against poverty finds a strong motivation in the option or preferential love of the Church for the poor.[Cf. John Paul II, Address to the Third General Conference of Latin American Bishops, Puebla, Mexico (28 January 1979), I/8: AAS 71 (1979), 194-195.]….The principle of solidarity, even in the fight against poverty, must always be appropriately accompanied by that of subsidiarity, thanks to which it is possible to foster the spirit of initiative, the fundamental basis of all social and economic development in poor countries.[Cf. Paul VI, Encyclical Letter Populorum Progressio, 55: AAS 59 (1967), 284; John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Sollicitudo Rei Socialis, 44: AAS 80 (1988), 575-577.]....

    “Complex causes of various types lie at the origin of the debt crisis....The greatest sufferings, which can be traced back both to structural questions as well as personal behaviour, strike the people of poor and indebted countries who are not responsible for this situation. The international community cannot ignore this fact; while reaffirming the principle that debts must be repaid, ways must be found that do not compromise the 'fundamental right of peoples to subsistence and progress'".[John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 35: AAS 83 (1991), 838; cf. also the document At the Service of the Human Community: an Ethical Approach to the International Debt Question, published by the Pontifical Commission “Iustitia et Pax” (27 December 1986), Vatican City 1986.]”

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