In Pennsylvania's

Saturday, December 31, 2016

"2017 & Do-It-Yourself Abortifacients" and more

  • Memorial of Saint John Neumann, Bishop (1/5/17)
  • Texas lawmaker hopes to keep couples together, ending ‘no-fault’ divorces (KXAN, 12/27/16)


http://faithfulinthe8th.blogspot.com/2016/11/catholic-medical-ethics-blueprint-for.html
  • Pope Francis, Message for World Day of the Sick (2/11/17)
  • Aren't these efforts tantamount to assaulting the conscience rights of health care workers in mental health services? (12/23/16)
  • "Please send a message to the AMA today asking them to support the dignity of every person and the need for supportive and comprehensive end of life care" (Pa Catholic Conference).
  • Email USCCB President Cardinal DiNardo, USCCB Pro Life Chair Cardinal Dolan, Archbishop Chaput, and National Catholic Bioethics Center President John Haas, PhD, STL, to ask for an end to ANY use of emergency (so-called) contraception in Catholic hospitals.

https://w2.vatican.va/content/francesco/en/speeches/2015/january/documents/papa-francesco_20150116_srilanka-filippine-incontro-famiglie.html
  • "In order for celibacy to be a truly free choice, seminarians must be led to understand, by the light of faith, the evangelical power of such a gift.176  At the same time they should be able to esteem correctly the values of the married state: 'Marriage and celibacy are two states of authentic Christian life.  Both are specific expressions of the Christian vocation'177" (Congregation for the Clergy, The Gift of the Priestly Vocation, 12/7/16, p. 48). 
 
  https://zenit.org/articles/popes-message-for-50th-world-day-of-peace/
  • National Migration Week 2017 To Be Celebrated January 8-14 (USCCB)

2017 & Do-It-Yourself Abortifacients

National Right to Life speaks of 58,586,256 abortions in the U.S. since 1973.  Yet if you properly count "chemical, mechanical, and surgical" means of abortions, Pharmacists for Life International puts the genocide at 308,000,000!  More than 5.25 times higher!

According to the Pennsylvania Pro Life Federation, a National Right to Life affiliate, the Pa Department of Health is reporting 31,818 abortions in Pa for 2015.  While obviously NOT following rigid and strict demographic practices, multiplying 31,818 by 5.25 would bring us to close to 167,000 abortions in Pa for 2015!  Are we failing to connect the dots and missing that MOST abortions are the result of abortifacients (See Abortifacients – HLI Educational Series for additional information.)?

Now, good luck finding a pharmacy (including those in department stores and supermarkets) which does not sell contraceptives!  And as the Church has constantly taught the absolute prohibition of contraception, ads for providers of contraceptives should have NO place in parish bulletins/publications.  How all the more horrific it is that much of what gets passed off as "contraceptive" can work as an abortifacient!  Is it possible that parish advertising for providers of contraceptives/abortifacients is being allowed, because pastors are inaccurately understanding "material cooperation" as "cooperation that does not matter"? (cf., Bishop Elio Sgreccia, Pontifical Academy for Life, 6/9/2005).
Despite the witness of uncompromisingly pro life physicians, many may be unaware that so-called "emergency contraception'' is even used in Catholic hospitals for individuals identifying themselves as victims of sexual assault!  
Email USCCB President Cardinal DiNardo, USCCB Pro Life Chair Cardinal Dolan, Archbishop Chaput, and National Catholic Bioethics Center President John Haas, PhD, STL, to ask for an end to ANY use of emergency (so-called) contraception in Catholic hospitals.

From: Maria Gallagher@paprolife.org
Sent: Friday, December 30, 2016 1:22 PM
To: gallagher@paprolife.org
Subject: News release: Abortion totals in Pennsylvania drop to record low


FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE                                                                        CONTACT:  MARIA GALLAGHER, PA PRO-LIFE
December 30, 2016                                                                                                                 717-541-0034
                                                                                                                          
Good News for PA Women and Families as Abortion Numbers Decline in Pennsylvania

Technology and Support for Pregnant Women Help Abortion Totals Tumble

HARRISBURG, Pa. – The number of abortions in Pennsylvania declined in 2015 to a record low—a welcome development for women and children in the Keystone State, according to the Pennsylvania Pro-Life Federation, an affiliate of National Right to Life.

Statistics just released by the Pennsylvania Department of Health show 308 fewer abortions occurred in PA in 2015 compared to 2014. In all, 31,818 abortions took place in PA in 2015—the lowest number ever recorded in the Commonwealth.

“The downward trend in abortions in the Keystone State is encouraging news for Pennsylvania women and families,” said Maria Gallagher, legislative director for the Pennsylvania Pro-Life Federation. “Technological developments such as 4D Ultrasound have helped show the humanity of the preborn child, and have aided in strengthening the bond between mother and baby.”

Pennsylvania women and children are also benefiting from the comprehensive counseling and life-affirming support offered by pregnancy resource centers, which provide everything from ultrasounds to life skill classes, and from diapers to daycare referrals for pregnant women and their families.

“The abortion rate in Pennsylvania would be much higher were it not for the state’s Alternatives to Abortion program, which is administered by Real Alternatives, Inc. (www.realalternatives.org ),” Gallagher added. “This ground-breaking program provides women with encouragement and resources so that they are fully supported during their pregnancies. Real Alternatives centers, along with other pro-life pregnancy help centers throughout the Commonwealth, are offering a much-needed lifeline to women and children.”
www.realalternatives.org
Details about this agency that provides government-funded alternatives to abortion services throughout Pennsylvania. Includes adoptions centers, pregnancy centers ...

“When women receive comprehensive support and affirmation, they are far more likely to choose life for their babies,” said Kevin Bagatta, President and CEO of Real Alternatives, Inc.

The Department of Health figures indicate that abortion totals decreased in a number of counties, including Philadelphia, Dauphin, Lehigh, and York, helping to bring about the statewide decline in abortions.

Troubling, however, is the number of repeat abortions. The figures show that in more than 47 percent of cases, Pennsylvania women who had abortions in 2015 had had at least one previous abortion and, in some cases, four or more prior abortions.

“Women in challenging circumstances deserve better than abortion,” said Gallagher. “We must continue to reach out to women to let them know that help is available for themselves and their babies—and that no one has the right to coerce them into having an abortionist end the lives of their children.”     

***************************************************************************************
The Pennsylvania Pro-Life Federation is a grassroots right-to-life organization with members statewide.  As the state affiliate of National Right to Life, PPLF is committed to promoting the dignity and value of human life from conception to natural death and to restoring legal protection for preborn children.

Friday, December 30, 2016

Texas lawmaker hopes to keep couples together, ending ‘no-fault’ divorces (KXAN, 12/27/16)

http://kxan.com/2016/12/27/texas-lawmaker-hopes-to-keep-couples-together-ending-no-fault-divorces/

Thursday, December 29, 2016

1/1, The LORD bless you and keep you! The LORD let his face shine upon you, and be gracious to you! The LORD look upon you kindly and give you peace!

http://www.usccb.org/bible/readings/bible/luke/2:16
  https://zenit.org/articles/popes-message-for-50th-world-day-of-peace/
  • "In the painful experience of these [migrant] brothers and sisters, we see again that of the Baby Jesus, who at the moment of birth did not find lodging and was born in a cave of Bethlehem; and then He was taken to Egypt to flee from Herod’s threat" (Pope Francis, 12/9/16).
    • National Migration Week 2017 To Be Celebrated January 8-14 (USCCB, 12/21/16)

https://w2.vatican.va/content/francesco/en/speeches/2015/january/documents/papa-francesco_20150116_srilanka-filippine-incontro-famiglie.html

    • "In order for celibacy to be a truly free choice, seminarians must be led to understand, by the light of faith, the evangelical power of such a gift.176  At the same time they should be able to esteem correctly the values of the married state: 'Marriage and celibacy are two states of authentic Christian life.  Both are specific expressions of the Christian vocation'177" (Congregation for the Clergy, The Gift of the Priestly Vocation, 12/7/16, p. 48). 
    http://faithfulinthe8th.blogspot.com/2016/11/catholic-medical-ethics-blueprint-for.html
    • Pope Francis, Message for World Day of the Sick (2/11/17)
    • Aren't these efforts tantamount to assaulting the conscience rights of health care workers in mental health services? (12/23/16)
    • "Please send a message to the AMA today asking them to support the dignity of every person and the need for supportive and comprehensive end of life care" (Pa Catholic Conference).
    • While the Church has always constantly taught the absolute prohibition of contraception, much of what gets passed off as "contraceptive" can work in an abortifacient manner.  Ads for providers of abortifacients/contraceptives should NOT be appearing in parish bulletins or other publications.  And potential abortifacients have no place in Catholic health care!  Email USCCB President Cardinal DiNardo, USCCB Pro Life Chair Cardinal Dolan, Archbishop Chaput, and National Catholic Bioethics Center President John Haas, PhD, STL, to ask for an end to ANY use of emergency (so-called) contraception in Catholic hospitals. 

    St. Thomas Becket 

     Call to Prayer (USCCB, 12/30/16

    Top Ten Best and Worst Moments at the UN This Year (C-Fam, 12/29/16)

    https://c-fam.org/

    Call to Prayer (USCCB, 12/30/16)

    http://campaign.r20.constantcontact.com/render?m=1100920568270&ca=a36b2d04-0c5e-4f6f-afb0-00943a482443

    Benefits association, diocese file suit over HHS transgender regulation (Catholic News Service, 12/29/16)

    http://www.catholicnews.com/services/englishnews/2016/benefits-association-diocese-file-suit-over-hhs-transgender-regulation.cfm

    "I exhort you, dear courageous newlyweds, in building your family to keep love and dedication constant, beyond all sacrifice, and not to end your day without making peace between you" (Pope Francis, 12/28/16)

    "It gives me pleasure to express a special greeting to young people, the sick and newlyweds, I call them the courageous ones, because one needs courage to marry and to do so for the whole of life: good ones....And I exhort you, dear courageous newlyweds, in building your family to keep love and dedication constant, beyond all sacrifice, and not to end your day without making peace between you."
    https://zenit.org/articles/general-audience-on-hope/

    WE are Paying for More Abortifacients, Like the IUD in Pa (cf, Pennsylvania's Medicaid jumps in on growing popularity of IUDs, Morning Call, 12/29/16)

    http://www.mcall.com/news/nationworld/pennsylvania/mc-iuds-popularity-up-state-incentives-20161228-story.html

    Wednesday, December 28, 2016

    “The angel of the Lord revealed to Joseph the dangers which threatened Jesus & Mary, forcing them to flee to Egypt & then to settle in Nazareth. So too, in our time, God calls upon us to recognize the dangers threatening our own families & to protect them from harm.

    https://w2.vatican.va/content/francesco/en/speeches/2015/january/documents/papa-francesco_20150116_srilanka-filippine-incontro-famiglie.html
     

    While the world relentlessly tries to tell us otherwise, Christ and His Church tell us that human life and marriage/family are of inestimable value!"

    What the Catechism proclaims about the family....

    I. The Family in God’s Plan
    The nature of the family

    2201    The conjugal community is established upon the consent of the spouses. Marriage and the family are ordered to the good of the spouses and to the procreation and education of children. The love of the spouses and the begetting of children create among members of the same family personal relationships and primordial responsibilities. (1625)

    2202    A man and a woman united in marriage, together with their children, form a family. This institution is prior to any recognition by public authority, which has an obligation to recognize it. It should be considered the normal reference point by which the different forms of family relationship are to be evaluated. (1882)

    2203    In creating man and woman, God instituted the human family and endowed it with its fundamental constitution. Its members are persons equal in dignity. For the common good of its members and of society, the family necessarily has manifold responsibilities, rights, and duties. (369)

    The Christian family 1655-1658

    2204    “The Christian family constitutes a specific revelation and realization of ecclesial communion, and for this reason it can and should be called a domestic church.”9 It is a community of faith, hope, and charity; it assumes singular importance in the Church, as is evident in the New Testament.10 (533)

    2205    The Christian family is a communion of persons, a sign and image of the communion of the Father and the Son in the Holy Spirit. In the procreation and education of children it reflects the Father’s work of creation. It is called to partake of the prayer and sacrifice of Christ. Daily prayer and the reading of the Word of God strengthen it in charity. The Christian family has an evangelizing and missionary task. (1702)

    2206    The relationships within the family bring an affinity of feelings, affections and interests, arising above all from the members’ respect for one another. The family is a privileged community called to achieve a “sharing of thought and common deliberation by the spouses as well as their eager cooperation as parents in the children’s upbringing.”11


     
    II. The Family and Society

    2207    The family is the original cell of social life. It is the natural society in which husband and wife are called to give themselves in love and in the gift of life. Authority, stability, and a life of relationships within the family constitute the foundations for freedom, security, and fraternity within society. The family is the community in which, from childhood, one can learn moral values, begin to honor God, and make good use of freedom. Family life is an initiation into life in society. (1880, 372, 1603)

    2208    The family should live in such a way that its members learn to care and take responsibility for the young, the old, the sick, the handicapped [sic], and the poor. There are many families who are at times incapable of providing this help. It devolves then on other persons, other families, and, in a subsidiary way, society to provide for their needs: “Religion that is pure and undefiled before God and the Father is this: to visit orphans and widows in their affliction and to keep oneself unstained from the world.”12

    2209    The family must be helped and defended by appropriate social measures. Where families cannot fulfill their responsibilities, other social bodies have the duty of helping them and of supporting the institution of the family. Following the principle of subsidiarity, larger communities should take care not to usurp the family’s prerogatives or interfere in its life. (1883)

    2210    The importance of the family for the life and well–being of society13 entails a particular responsibility for society to support and strengthen marriage and the family. Civil authority should consider it a grave duty “to acknowledge the true nature of marriage and the family, to protect and foster them, to safeguard public morality, and promote domestic prosperity.”14

    2211    The political community has a duty to honor the family, to assist it, and to ensure especially:
    –the freedom to establish a family, have children, and bring them up in keeping with the family’s own moral and religious convictions;
    –the protection of the stability of the marriage bond and the institution of the family;
    –the freedom to profess one’s faith, to hand it on, and raise one’s children in it, with the necessary means and institutions;
    –the right to private property, to free enterprise, to obtain work and housing, and the right to emigrate;
    –in keeping with the country’s institutions, the right to medical care, assistance for the aged, and family benefits;
    –the protection of security and health, especially with respect to dangers like drugs, pornography, alcoholism, etc.;
    –the freedom to form associations with other families and so to have representation before civil authority.15

    2212    The fourth commandment illuminates other relationships in society. In our brothers and sisters we see the children of our parents; in our cousins, the descendants of our ancestors; in our fellow citizens, the children of our country; in the baptized, the children of our mother the Church; in every human person, a son or daughter of the One who wants to be called “our Father.” In this way our relationships with our neighbors are recognized as personal in character. The neighbor is not a “unit” in the human collective; he is “someone” who by his known origins deserves particular attention and respect. (225, 1931)

    2213    Human communities are made up of persons. Governing them well is not limited to guaranteeing rights and fulfilling duties such as honoring contracts. Right relations between employers and employees, between those who govern and citizens, presuppose a natural good will in keeping with the dignity of human persons concerned for justice and fraternity. (1939)

    the late Deacon Manny Garcia's homily for the Feast of the Holy Family

     

    Tuesday, December 27, 2016

    On the Feast of the Holy Innocents, Say NO to Providers of Abortifacients!

    • In the decades after Blessed Pope Paul VI's Humanae Vitae, a misguided pastoral approach has been frequently at play, downplaying that the encyclical reiterated the Church's constant teaching on the absolute prohibition of contraception. 

      Humanae Vitae has also shown itself to have been prophetic.  And we now know that much of what gets sold as "contraceptive" can work in an abortifacient manner.  This is true of hormonal contraceptives, most especially of so-called "emergency contraception." 

      Ads for providers of abortifacients/contraceptives should absolutely NOT be appearing in parish bulletins or other publications - are they doing so because of legalistic notions about "cooperation"?  (In thinking about "material cooperation," some MISTAKENLY act as though that meant "cooperation that does not matter".... ). 

      For the spiritual good of the clergy and the laity - perhaps most especially the  pharmacists themselves - let the Feast of the Holy Innocents mark the start of your own "NO" to Ads for providers of abortifacients/contraceptives.
    • Email USCCB President Cardinal DiNardo, USCCB Pro Life Chair Cardinal Dolan, Archbishop Chaput, and National Catholic Bioethics Center President John Haas, PhD, STL, to ask for an end to ANY use of emergency (so-called) contraception in Catholic hospitals.
    http://faithfulinthe8th.blogspot.com/2016/12/feast-of-holy-innocents-martyrs.html

    http://www.usccb.org/bible/matthew/2:17


    Feast of the Holy Innocents, martyrs

    http://faithfulinthe8th.blogspot.com/2016/12/feast-of-holy-innocents-martyrs.html

    • Email USCCB President Cardinal DiNardo, USCCB Pro Life Chair Cardinal Dolan, Archbishop Chaput, and National Catholic Bioethics Center President John Haas, PhD, STL, to ask for an end to ANY use of emergency (so-called) contraception in Catholic hospitals.
    http://faithfulinthe8th.blogspot.com/2016/11/catholic-medical-ethics-blueprint-for.html
    • Pope Francis, Message for World Day of the Sick (2/11/17)
    • Aren't these efforts tantamount to assaulting the conscience rights of health care workers in mental health services? (12/23/16)
    • "Please send a message to the AMA today asking them to support the dignity of every person and the need for supportive and comprehensive end of life care" (Pa Catholic Conference).
    http://www.usccb.org/bible/matthew/2:17

    Monday, December 26, 2016

    1/5/17, Memorial of Saint John Neumann, Bishop

    1/5/17, Memorial of Saint John Neumann, Bishop


    http://www.stjohnneumann.org/
    http://www.stjohnneumann.org/
    http://www.stjohnneumann.org/
    http://www.stjohnneumann.org/
    http://www.stjohnneumann.org/
    http://www.stjohnneumann.org/
    " In December 1982, seven-year-old Chucky McGivern came home from school with the chicken pox. Three days later, he suddenly lost consciousness and was taken to the hospital. He was diagnosed with Reye's syndrome and his parents were told he might not survive, and that if he lived, he would probably have severe brain damage. His mother's cousin gave her a medal of St. John Neumann which she put near his head hoping it would help save him. His family began going to church more often and prayed regularly. Soon thereafter, his mother then noticed the medal somehow kept being flipped over. At around the same time, his father had an odd encounter in the hospital's waiting room. A mysterious small boy was there, also seen by several doctors and nurses, asking to see Chucky. A priest who came to administer the last rites for him felt that, instead of dying, Chucky McGivern would reverse courses, get better, and live through the disease.


    "A few hours later, Chucky regained consciousness and soon was off life support. After he was conscious, he told his parents that he had seen the same boy that his father, the doctors, and nurses had seen. A few days before Christmas, he was released from the hospital. He and his parents later went to the shrine of St. John Neumann, and there he saw a picture of Neumann as a boy, and he was certain that it was the one that he saw in the hospital....

    "The case first aired on the December 23, 1992 episode" [of "Unsolved Mysteries"] (http://unsolvedmysteries.wikia.com/wiki/Chucky_McGivern)
    http://www.stjohnneumann.org/
    http://www.stjohnneumann.org/
    http://www.stjohnneumann.org/

    re: Catechism, Part 3, Section 2, The 10 Commandments, Chapter 2, Article 6

    PART THREE

    LIFE IN CHRIST
    SECTION TWO

    THE TEN COMMANDMENTS
    CHAPTER TWO

    "YOU SHALL LOVE YOUR NEIGHBOR AS YOURSELF"


    ARTICLE 6
    THE SIXTH COMMANDMENT

    You shall not commit adultery.113 You have heard that it was said, "You shall not commit adultery." But I say to you that every one who looks at a woman lustfully has already committed adultery with her in his heart.114
    * I. "MALE AND FEMALE HE CREATED THEM . . ."

    2331 "God is love and in himself he lives a mystery of personal loving communion. Creating the human race in his own image . . .. God inscribed in the humanity of man and woman the vocation, and thus the capacity and responsibility, of love and communion."115
    "God created man in his own image . . . male and female he created them";116 He blessed them and said, "Be fruitful and multiply";117 "When God created man, he made him in the likeness of God. Male and female he created them, and he blessed them and named them Man when they were created."118

    2332 Sexuality affects all aspects of the human person in the unity of his body and soul. It especially concerns affectivity, the capacity to love and to procreate, and in a more general way the aptitude for forming bonds of communion with others.

    2333 Everyone, man and woman, should acknowledge and accept his sexual identity. Physical, moral, and spiritual difference and complementarity are oriented toward the goods of marriage and the flourishing of family life. The harmony of the couple and of society depends in part on the way in which the complementarity, needs, and mutual support between the sexes are lived out.

    2334 "In creating men 'male and female,' God gives man and woman an equal personal dignity."119 "Man is a person, man and woman equally so, since both were created in the image and likeness of the personal God."120

    2335 Each of the two sexes is an image of the power and tenderness of God, with equal dignity though in a different way. The union of man and woman in marriage is a way of imitating in the flesh the Creator's generosity and fecundity: "Therefore a man leaves his father and his mother and cleaves to his wife, and they become one flesh."121 All human generations proceed from this union.122

    2336 Jesus came to restore creation to the purity of its origins. In the Sermon on the Mount, he interprets God's plan strictly: "You have heard that it was said, 'You shall not commit adultery.' But I say to you that every one who looks at a woman lustfully has already committed adultery with her in his heart."123 What God has joined together, let not man put asunder.124
    The tradition of the Church has understood the sixth commandment as encompassing the whole of human sexuality.

    II. THE VOCATION TO CHASTITY

    2337 Chastity means the successful integration of sexuality within the person and thus the inner unity of man in his bodily and spiritual being. Sexuality, in which man's belonging to the bodily and biological world is expressed, becomes personal and truly human when it is integrated into the relationship of one person to another, in the complete and lifelong mutual gift of a man and a woman.
    The virtue of chastity therefore involves the integrity of the person and the integrality of the gift.

    The integrity of the person

    2338 The chaste person maintains the integrity of the powers of life and love placed in him. This integrity ensures the unity of the person; it is opposed to any behavior that would impair it. It tolerates neither a double life nor duplicity in speech.125

    2339 Chastity includes an apprenticeship in self-mastery which is a training in human freedom. The alternative is clear: either man governs his passions and finds peace, or he lets himself be dominated by them and becomes unhappy.126 "Man's dignity therefore requires him to act out of conscious and free choice, as moved and drawn in a personal way from within, and not by blind impulses in himself or by mere external constraint. Man gains such dignity when, ridding himself of all slavery to the passions, he presses forward to his goal by freely choosing what is good and, by his diligence and skill, effectively secures for himself the means suited to this end."127

    2340 Whoever wants to remain faithful to his baptismal promises and resist temptations will want to adopt the means for doing so: self-knowledge, practice of an ascesis adapted to the situations that confront him, obedience to God's commandments, exercise of the moral virtues, and fidelity to prayer. "Indeed it is through chastity that we are gathered together and led back to the unity from which we were fragmented into multiplicity."128

    2341 The virtue of chastity comes under the cardinal virtue of temperance, which seeks to permeate the passions and appetites of the senses with reason.

    2342 Self-mastery is a long and exacting work. One can never consider it acquired once and for all. It presupposes renewed effort at all stages of life.129 The effort required can be more intense in certain periods, such as when the personality is being formed during childhood and adolescence.

    2343 Chastity has laws of growth which progress through stages marked by imperfection and too often by sin. "Man . . . day by day builds himself up through his many free decisions; and so he knows, loves, and accomplishes moral good by stages of growth."130

    2344 Chastity represents an eminently personal task; it also involves a cultural effort, for there is "an interdependence between personal betterment and the improvement of society."131 Chastity presupposes respect for the rights of the person, in particular the right to receive information and an education that respect the moral and spiritual dimensions of human life.

    2345 Chastity is a moral virtue. It is also a gift from God, a grace, a fruit of spiritual effort.132 The Holy Spirit enables one whom the water of Baptism has regenerated to imitate the purity of Christ.133

    The integrality of the gift of self

    2346 Charity is the form of all the virtues. Under its influence, chastity appears as a school of the gift of the person. Self-mastery is ordered to the gift of self. Chastity leads him who practices it to become a witness to his neighbor of God's fidelity and loving kindness.

    2347 The virtue of chastity blossoms in friendship. It shows the disciple how to follow and imitate him who has chosen us as his friends,134 who has given himself totally to us and allows us to participate in his divine estate. Chastity is a promise of immortality.
    Chastity is expressed notably in friendship with one's neighbor. Whether it develops between persons of the same or opposite sex, friendship represents a great good for all. It leads to spiritual communion.

    The various forms of chastity

    2348 All the baptized are called to chastity. The Christian has "put on Christ,"135 the model for all chastity. All Christ's faithful are called to lead a chaste life in keeping with their particular states of life. At the moment of his Baptism, the Christian is pledged to lead his affective life in chastity.

    2349 "People should cultivate [chastity] in the way that is suited to their state of life. Some profess virginity or consecrated celibacy which enables them to give themselves to God alone with an undivided heart in a remarkable manner. Others live in the way prescribed for all by the moral law, whether they are married or single."136 Married people are called to live conjugal chastity; others practice chastity in continence:
    There are three forms of the virtue of chastity: the first is that of spouses, the second that of widows, and the third that of virgins. We do not praise any one of them to the exclusion of the others. . . . This is what makes for the richness of the discipline of the Church.137
    2350 Those who are engaged to marry are called to live chastity in continence. They should see in this time of testing a discovery of mutual respect, an apprenticeship in fidelity, and the hope of receiving one another from God. They should reserve for marriage the expressions of affection that belong to married love. They will help each other grow in chastity.

    Offenses against chastity

    2351 Lust is disordered desire for or inordinate enjoyment of sexual pleasure. Sexual pleasure is morally disordered when sought for itself, isolated from its procreative and unitive purposes.

    2352 By masturbation is to be understood the deliberate stimulation of the genital organs in order to derive sexual pleasure. "Both the Magisterium of the Church, in the course of a constant tradition, and the moral sense of the faithful have been in no doubt and have firmly maintained that masturbation is an intrinsically and gravely disordered action."138 "The deliberate use of the sexual faculty, for whatever reason, outside of marriage is essentially contrary to its purpose." For here sexual pleasure is sought outside of "the sexual relationship which is demanded by the moral order and in which the total meaning of mutual self-giving and human procreation in the context of true love is achieved."139
    To form an equitable judgment about the subjects' moral responsibility and to guide pastoral action, one must take into account the affective immaturity, force of acquired habit, conditions of anxiety or other psychological or social factors that lessen, if not even reduce to a minimum, moral culpability.

    2353 Fornication is carnal union between an unmarried man and an unmarried woman. It is gravely contrary to the dignity of persons and of human sexuality which is naturally ordered to the good of spouses and the generation and education of children. Moreover, it is a grave scandal when there is corruption of the young.

    2354 Pornography consists in removing real or simulated sexual acts from the intimacy of the partners, in order to display them deliberately to third parties. It offends against chastity because it perverts the conjugal act, the intimate giving of spouses to each other. It does grave injury to the dignity of its participants (actors, vendors, the public), since each one becomes an object of base pleasure and illicit profit for others. It immerses all who are involved in the illusion of a fantasy world. It is a grave offense. Civil authorities should prevent the production and distribution of pornographic materials.

    2355 Prostitution does injury to the dignity of the person who engages in it, reducing the person to an instrument of sexual pleasure. The one who pays sins gravely against himself: he violates the chastity to which his Baptism pledged him and defiles his body, the temple of the Holy Spirit.140 Prostitution is a social scourge. It usually involves women, but also men, children, and adolescents (The latter two cases involve the added sin of scandal.). While it is always gravely sinful to engage in prostitution, the imputability of the offense can be attenuated by destitution, blackmail, or social pressure.

    2356 Rape is the forcible violation of the sexual intimacy of another person. It does injury to justice and charity. Rape deeply wounds the respect, freedom, and physical and moral integrity to which every person has a right. It causes grave damage that can mark the victim for life. It is always an intrinsically evil act. Graver still is the rape of children committed by parents (incest) or those responsible for the education of the children entrusted to them.

    Chastity and homosexuality

    2357 Homosexuality refers to relations between men or between women who experience an exclusive or predominant sexual attraction toward persons of the same sex. It has taken a great variety of forms through the centuries and in different cultures. Its psychological genesis remains largely unexplained. Basing itself on Sacred Scripture, which presents homosexual acts as acts of grave depravity,141 tradition has always declared that "homosexual acts are intrinsically disordered."142 They are contrary to the natural law. They close the sexual act to the gift of life. They do not proceed from a genuine affective and sexual complementarity. Under no circumstances can they be approved.

    2358 The number of men and women who have deep-seated homosexual tendencies is not negligible. This inclination, which is objectively disordered, constitutes for most of them a trial. They must be accepted with respect, compassion, and sensitivity. Every sign of unjust discrimination in their regard should be avoided. These persons are called to fulfill God's will in their lives and, if they are Christians, to unite to the sacrifice of the Lord's Cross the difficulties they may encounter from their condition.

    2359 Homosexual persons are called to chastity. By the virtues of self-mastery that teach them inner freedom, at times by the support of disinterested friendship, by prayer and sacramental grace, they can and should gradually and resolutely approach Christian perfection.

    III. THE LOVE OF HUSBAND AND WIFE

    2360 Sexuality is ordered to the conjugal love of man and woman. In marriage the physical intimacy of the spouses becomes a sign and pledge of spiritual communion. Marriage bonds between baptized persons are sanctified by the sacrament.

    2361 "Sexuality, by means of which man and woman give themselves to one another through the acts which are proper and exclusive to spouses, is not something simply biological, but concerns the innermost being of the human person as such. It is realized in a truly human way only if it is an integral part of the love by which a man and woman commit themselves totally to one another until death."143
    Tobias got out of bed and said to Sarah, "Sister, get up, and let us pray and implore our Lord that he grant us mercy and safety." So she got up, and they began to pray and implore that they might be kept safe. Tobias began by saying, "Blessed are you, O God of our fathers. . . . You made Adam, and for him you made his wife Eve as a helper and support. From the two of them the race of mankind has sprung. You said, 'It is not good that the man should be alone; let us make a helper for him like himself.' I now am taking this kinswoman of mine, not because of lust, but with sincerity. Grant that she and I may find mercy and that we may grow old together." And they both said, "Amen, Amen." Then they went to sleep for the night.144
    2362 "The acts in marriage by which the intimate and chaste union of the spouses takes place are noble and honorable; the truly human performance of these acts fosters the self-giving they signify and enriches the spouses in joy and gratitude."145 Sexuality is a source of joy and pleasure:
    The Creator himself . . . established that in the [generative] function, spouses should experience pleasure and enjoyment of body and spirit. Therefore, the spouses do nothing evil in seeking this pleasure and enjoyment. They accept what the Creator has intended for them. At the same time, spouses should know how to keep themselves within the limits of just moderation.146
    2363 The spouses' union achieves the twofold end of marriage: the good of the spouses themselves and the transmission of life. These two meanings or values of marriage cannot be separated without altering the couple's spiritual life and compromising the goods of marriage and the future of the family.
    The conjugal love of man and woman thus stands under the twofold obligation of fidelity and fecundity.

    * Conjugal fidelity

    2364 The married couple forms "the intimate partnership of life and love established by the Creator and governed by his laws; it is rooted in the conjugal covenant, that is, in their irrevocable personal consent."147 Both give themselves definitively and totally to one another. They are no longer two; from now on they form one flesh. The covenant they freely contracted imposes on the spouses the obligation to preserve it as unique and indissoluble.148 "What therefore God has joined together, let not man put asunder."149

    2365 Fidelity expresses constancy in keeping one's given word. God is faithful. The Sacrament of Matrimony enables man and woman to enter into Christ's fidelity for his Church. Through conjugal chastity, they bear witness to this mystery before the world.
    St. John Chrysostom suggests that young husbands should say to their wives: I have taken you in my arms, and I love you, and I prefer you to my life itself. For the present life is nothing, and my most ardent dream is to spend it with you in such a way that we may be assured of not being separated in the life reserved for us. . . . I place your love above all things, and nothing would be more bitter or painful to me than to be of a different mind than you.150
    * The fecundity of marriage

    2366 Fecundity is a gift, an end of marriage, for conjugal love naturally tends to be fruitful. A child does not come from outside as something added on to the mutual love of the spouses, but springs from the very heart of that mutual giving, as its fruit and fulfillment. So the Church, which is "on the side of life,"151 teaches that "it is necessary that each and every marriage act remain ordered per se to the procreation of human life."152 "This particular doctrine, expounded on numerous occasions by the Magisterium, is based on the inseparable connection, established by God, which man on his own initiative may not break, between the unitive significance and the procreative significance which are both inherent to the marriage act."153

    2367 Called to give life, spouses share in the creative power and fatherhood of God.154 "Married couples should regard it as their proper mission to transmit human life and to educate their children; they should realize that they are thereby cooperating with the love of God the Creator and are, in a certain sense, its interpreters. They will fulfill this duty with a sense of human and Christian responsibility."155

    2368 A particular aspect of this responsibility concerns the regulation of procreation. For just reasons, spouses may wish to space the births of their children. It is their duty to make certain that their desire is not motivated by selfishness but is in conformity with the generosity appropriate to responsible parenthood. Moreover, they should conform their behavior to the objective criteria of morality:
    When it is a question of harmonizing married love with the responsible transmission of life, the morality of the behavior does not depend on sincere intention and evaluation of motives alone; but it must be determined by objective criteria, criteria drawn from the nature of the person and his acts criteria that respect the total meaning of mutual self-giving and human procreation in the context of true love; this is possible only if the virtue of married chastity is practiced with sincerity of heart.156
    2369 "By safeguarding both these essential aspects, the unitive and the procreative, the conjugal act preserves in its fullness the sense of true mutual love and its orientation toward man's exalted vocation to parenthood."157

    2370 Periodic continence, that is, the methods of birth regulation based on self-observation and the use of infertile periods, is in conformity with the objective criteria of morality.158 These methods respect the bodies of the spouses, encourage tenderness between them, and favor the education of an authentic freedom. In contrast, "every action which, whether in anticipation of the conjugal act, or in its accomplishment, or in the development of its natural consequences, proposes, whether as an end or as a means, to render procreation impossible" is intrinsically evil:159
    Thus the innate language that expresses the total reciprocal self-giving of husband and wife is overlaid, through contraception, by an objectively contradictory language, namely, that of not giving oneself totally to the other. This leads not only to a positive refusal to be open to life but also to a falsification of the inner truth of conjugal love, which is called upon to give itself in personal totality. . . . The difference, both anthropological and moral, between contraception and recourse to the rhythm of the cycle . . . involves in the final analysis two irreconcilable concepts of the human person and of human sexuality.160
    2371 "Let all be convinced that human life and the duty of transmitting it are not limited by the horizons of this life only: their true evaluation and full significance can be understood only in reference to man's eternal destiny."161

    2372 The state has a responsibility for its citizens' well-being. In this capacity it is legitimate for it to intervene to orient the demography of the population. This can be done by means of objective and respectful information, but certainly not by authoritarian, coercive measures. The state may not legitimately usurp the initiative of spouses, who have the primary responsibility for the procreation and education of their children.162 In this area, it is not authorized to employ means contrary to the moral law.

    The gift of a child

    2373 Sacred Scripture and the Church's traditional practice see in large families a sign of God's blessing and the parents' generosity.163

    2374 Couples who discover that they are sterile suffer greatly. "What will you give me," asks Abraham of God, "for I continue childless?"164 And Rachel cries to her husband Jacob, "Give me children, or I shall die!"165

    2375 Research aimed at reducing human sterility is to be encouraged, on condition that it is placed "at the service of the human person, of his inalienable rights, and his true and integral good according to the design and will of God."166

    2376 Techniques that entail the dissociation of husband and wife, by the intrusion of a person other than the couple (donation of sperm or ovum, surrogate uterus), are gravely immoral. These techniques (heterologous artificial insemination and fertilization) infringe the child's right to be born of a father and mother known to him and bound to each other by marriage. They betray the spouses' "right to become a father and a mother only through each other."167

    2377 Techniques involving only the married couple (homologous artificial insemination and fertilization) are perhaps less reprehensible, yet remain morally unacceptable. They dissociate the sexual act from the procreative act. The act which brings the child into existence is no longer an act by which two persons give themselves to one another, but one that "entrusts the life and identity of the embryo into the power of doctors and biologists and establishes the domination of technology over the origin and destiny of the human person. Such a relationship of domination is in itself contrary to the dignity and equality that must be common to parents and children."168 "Under the moral aspect procreation is deprived of its proper perfection when it is not willed as the fruit of the conjugal act, that is to say, of the specific act of the spouses' union . . . . Only respect for the link between the meanings of the conjugal act and respect for the unity of the human being make possible procreation in conformity with the dignity of the person."169

    2378 A child is not something owed to one, but is a gift. The "supreme gift of marriage" is a human person. A child may not be considered a piece of property, an idea to which an alleged "right to a child" would lead. In this area, only the child possesses genuine rights: the right "to be the fruit of the specific act of the conjugal love of his parents," and "the right to be respected as a person from the moment of his conception."170

    2379 The Gospel shows that physical sterility is not an absolute evil. Spouses who still suffer from infertility after exhausting legitimate medical procedures should unite themselves with the Lord's Cross, the source of all spiritual fecundity. They can give expression to their generosity by adopting abandoned children or performing demanding services for others.

    IV. OFFENSES AGAINST THE DIGNITY OF MARRIAGE

    Adultery

    2380 Adultery refers to marital infidelity. When two partners, of whom at least one is married to another party, have sexual relations - even transient ones - they commit adultery. Christ condemns even adultery of mere desire.171 The sixth commandment and the New Testament forbid adultery absolutely.172 The prophets denounce the gravity of adultery; they see it as an image of the sin of idolatry.173

    2381 Adultery is an injustice. He who commits adultery fails in his commitment. He does injury to the sign of the covenant which the marriage bond is, transgresses the rights of the other spouse, and undermines the institution of marriage by breaking the contract on which it is based. He compromises the good of human generation and the welfare of children who need their parents' stable union.

    Divorce

    2382 The Lord Jesus insisted on the original intention of the Creator who willed that marriage be indissoluble.174 He abrogates the accommodations that had slipped into the old Law.175
    Between the baptized, "a ratified and consummated marriage cannot be dissolved by any human power or for any reason other than death."176

    2383 The separation of spouses while maintaining the marriage bond can be legitimate in certain cases provided for by canon law.177
    If civil divorce remains the only possible way of ensuring certain legal rights, the care of the children, or the protection of inheritance, it can be tolerated and does not constitute a moral offense.

    2384 Divorce is a grave offense against the natural law. It claims to break the contract, to which the spouses freely consented, to live with each other till death. Divorce does injury to the covenant of salvation, of which sacramental marriage is the sign. Contracting a new union, even if it is recognized by civil law, adds to the gravity of the rupture: the remarried spouse is then in a situation of public and permanent adultery:
    If a husband, separated from his wife, approaches another woman, he is an adulterer because he makes that woman commit adultery, and the woman who lives with him is an adulteress, because she has drawn another's husband to herself.178
    2385 Divorce is immoral also because it introduces disorder into the family and into society. This disorder brings grave harm to the deserted spouse, to children traumatized by the separation of their parents and often torn between them, and because of its contagious effect which makes it truly a plague on society.

    2386 It can happen that one of the spouses is the innocent victim of a divorce decreed by civil law; this spouse therefore has not contravened the moral law. There is a considerable difference between a spouse who has sincerely tried to be faithful to the sacrament of marriage and is unjustly abandoned, and one who through his own grave fault destroys a canonically valid marriage.179

    Other offenses against the dignity of marriage

    2387 The predicament of a man who, desiring to convert to the Gospel, is obliged to repudiate one or more wives with whom he has shared years of conjugal life, is understandable. However polygamy is not in accord with the moral law." [Conjugal] communion is radically contradicted by polygamy; this, in fact, directly negates the plan of God which was revealed from the beginning, because it is contrary to the equal personal dignity of men and women who in matrimony give themselves with a love that is total and therefore unique and exclusive."180 The Christian who has previously lived in polygamy has a grave duty in justice to honor the obligations contracted in regard to his former wives and his children.

    2388 Incest designates intimate relations between relatives or in-laws within a degree that prohibits marriage between them.181 St. Paul stigmatizes this especially grave offense: "It is actually reported that there is immorality among you . . . for a man is living with his father's wife. . . . In the name of the Lord Jesus . . . you are to deliver this man to Satan for the destruction of the flesh. . . . "182 Incest corrupts family relationships and marks a regression toward animality.

    2389 Connected to incest is any sexual abuse perpetrated by adults on children or adolescents entrusted to their care. The offense is compounded by the scandalous harm done to the physical and moral integrity of the young, who will remain scarred by it all their lives; and the violation of responsibility for their upbringing.

    2390 In a so-called free union, a man and a woman refuse to give juridical and public form to a liaison involving sexual intimacy.
    The expression "free union" is fallacious: what can "union" mean when the partners make no commitment to one another, each exhibiting a lack of trust in the other, in himself, or in the future?
    The expression covers a number of different situations: concubinage, rejection of marriage as such, or inability to make long-term commitments.183 All these situations offend against the dignity of marriage; they destroy the very idea of the family; they weaken the sense of fidelity. They are contrary to the moral law. The sexual act must take place exclusively within marriage. Outside of marriage it always constitutes a grave sin and excludes one from sacramental communion.

    2391 Some today claim a "right to a trial marriage" where there is an intention of getting married later. However firm the purpose of those who engage in premature sexual relations may be, "the fact is that such liaisons can scarcely ensure mutual sincerity and fidelity in a relationship between a man and a woman, nor, especially, can they protect it from inconstancy of desires or whim."184 Carnal union is morally legitimate only when a definitive community of life between a man and woman has been established. Human love does not tolerate "trial marriages." It demands a total and definitive gift of persons to one another.185

    IN BRIEF

    2392 "Love is the fundamental and innate vocation of every human being" (FC 11).

    2393 By creating the human being man and woman, God gives personal dignity equally to the one and the other. Each of them, man and woman, should acknowledge and accept his sexual identity.

    2394 Christ is the model of chastity. Every baptized person is called to lead a chaste life, each according to his particular state of life.

    2395 Chastity means the integration of sexuality within the person. It includes an apprenticeship in self-mastery.

    2396 Among the sins gravely contrary to chastity are masturbation, fornication, pornography, and homosexual practices.

    2397 The covenant which spouses have freely entered into entails faithful love. It imposes on them the obligation to keep their marriage indissoluble.

    2398 Fecundity is a good, a gift and an end of marriage. By giving life, spouses participate in God's fatherhood.

    2399 The regulation of births represents one of the aspects of responsible fatherhood and motherhood. Legitimate intentions on the part of the spouses do not justify recourse to morally unacceptable means (for example, direct sterilization or contraception). 

    2400 Adultery, divorce, polygamy, and free union are grave offenses against the dignity of marriage.

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